Information Science

Any notation for giving instructions is a programming language. Arithmetic notation is a programming language; so is Pascal. The input data format for an applications program is also a programming language. The person who uses an applications program thinks of its input commands as a language, just like the program’s implementor thought of Pascal when he used it to implement the applications program. The person who wrote the Pascal compiler had a similar view about the language used for coding the compiler. This series of languages and viewpoints terminates at the physical machine, where code is converted into action.

Denotational semantics (pdf) (local mirror 20191222)

ROBREDO. Ciência da informação e Web semântica: Linhas convergentes ou linhas paralelas? (pdf)

Simpson’s Paradox and Statistical Urban Legends: Gender Bias at Berkeley